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Ergopeptine alkaloids in grazed tall fescue

Permanent URL:
http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/23838
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Abstract:
Endophyte (Acremoniu, coenophialum Morgan-Jones et Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) produces ergopeptine alkaloids (EP) that may be associated with fescue toxicosis symptoms in cattle (Bos taurus). A study was conducted during 1983 and 1984 at Watkinsville, GA [Georgia, USA] to determine the effects of endophyte infection, season, and N fertilization on EP concentration and steer average daily gain (ADG) in grazed 0.7-ha tall fescue paddocks. Treatments included low (LF) and high (HF) endophyte infection frequency 'Kentucky-31' (KY-31) tall fescue fertilized with 134 or 336 N ha-1 (2 .times. 2 factorial) replicated three times. The cultivars AU Triumph and Johnstone were also evaluated. Animals were managed using put-and-take grazing systems. Ergopeptide alkaloid concentration (ergovaline was 80% of total) was greater in HF KY-31 than LF KY-31 in both years. Peak ergovaline concentrations occurred in spring and again in autumn (1984) when concentrations in HF KY-31 approached 1 mk kg-1. Mid-summer concentrations were about one-third the autumn maximum for HF and LF KY-31. Nitrogen fertilization had minimal effect on ergovaline concentration in the spring-summer of 1983 but increased concentrations in LF KY-31 in 1984. Ergopeptine alkaloids were not detected in endophyte-free AU Triumph, and were detected in low amounts (< 0.1 mg kg-1) in a pre-varietal release of Johnstone containing 7 to 10% endophyte. Increased ergovaline was associated with decreased ADG in the spring-summer of 1983 and 1984; however, there was no significant association between ergovaline and ADG when the entire (April-December) 1984 growing season was considered, suggesting that ergopeptide alkaloids may operate in conjuntion with other environmental and nutritional factors to elicit fescue toxicosis symptoms.
Author(s):
Belesky, D.P. , Stuedemann, J.A. , Plattner, R.D. , Wilkinson, S.R.
Note:
Includes references.
Source:
Agronomy journal Mar/Apr 1988. v. 80 (2)
Language:
English
Year:
1988
Collection:
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
Rights:
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.