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An evaluation of the mode of action framework for mutagenic carcinogens case study: Cyclophosphamide

Permanent URL:
http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/31995
File:
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Abstract:
In response to the 2005 revised US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Cancer Guidelines, a Risk Assessment Forum's Technical Panel has devised a strategy in which genetic toxicology data combined with other information are assessed to determine whether a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic mode of action (MOA). This information is necessary for EPA to decide whether age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) should be applied to the cancer risk assessment. A decision tree has been developed as a part of this approach and outlines the critical steps for analyzing a compound for carcinogenicity through a mutagenic MOA (e.g., data analysis, determination of mutagenicity in animals and in humans). Agents, showing mutagenicity in animals and humans, proceed through the Agency's framework analysis for MOAs. Cyclophosphamide (CP), an antineoplastic agent, which is carcinogenic in animals and humans and mutagenic in vitro and in vivo, was selected as a case study to illustrate how the framework analysis would be applied to prove that a carcinogen operates through a mutagenic MOA. Consistent positive results have been seen for mutagenic activity in numerous in vitro assays, in animals (mice, rats, and hamsters) and in humans. Accordingly, CP was processed through the framework analysis and key steps leading to tumor formation were identified as follows: metabolism of the parent compound to alkylating metabolites, DNA damage followed by induction of multiple adverse genetic events, cell proliferation, and bladder tumors. Genetic changes in rats (sister chromatid exchanges at 0.62 mg/kg) can commence within 30 min and in cancer patients, chromosome aberrations at 35 mg/kg are seen by 1 hr, well within the timeframe and tumorigenic dose range for early events. Supporting evidence is also found for cell proliferation, indicating that mutagenicity, associated with cytotoxicity, leads to a proliferative response, which occurs early (48 hr) in the process of tumor induction. Overall, the weight of evidence evaluation supports CP acting through a mutagenic MOA. In addition, no data were found that an alternative MOA might be operative. Therefore, the cancer guidelines recommend a linear extrapolation for the risk assessment. Additionally, data exist showing that CP induces mutagenicity in fetal blood and in the peripheral blood of pediatric patients; thus, the ADAFs would be applied. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Author(s):
McCarroll, Nancy , Keshava, Nagalakshmi , Cimino, Michael , Chu, Margaret , Dearfield, Kerry , Keshava, Channa , Kligerman, Andrew , Owen, Russell , Protzel, Alberto , Putzrath, Resha , Schoeny, Rita
Note:
Includes references
Source:
Environmental and molecular mutagenesis 2008 Mar., v. 49, no. 2
Language:
English
Publisher:
Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Year:
2008
Collection:
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
Rights:
Works produced by employees of the U.S. Government as part of their official duties are not copyrighted within the U.S. The content of this document is not copyrighted.