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A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation

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The Corner Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) has a kinetic submodel that predicts ruminal fermentation. The ruminal microbial population is divided into bacteria that ferment structural carbohydrate (SC) and those that ferment nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC). Protozoa axe accommodated by a decrease in the theoretical maximum growth yield (.50 vs .40 g of cells per gram of carbohydrate fermented), and the yields are adjusted for maintenance requirements (.05 vs .150 g of cell dry weight per gram of carbohydrate fermented per hour for SC and NSC bacteria, respectively). Bacterial yield is decreased when forage NDF is < 20% (2.5% for every 1% decrease in NDF). The SC bacteria utilize only ammonia as a N source, but the NSC bacteria can utilize either ammonia or peptides. The yield of NSC bacteria is enhanced by as much as 18.7% when proteins or peptides are available. The NSC bacteria produce less ammonia when the carbohydrate fermentation (growth) rate is rapid, but 34% of the ammonia production is insensitive to the rate of carbohydrate fermentation. Ammonia production rates are moderated by the rate of peptide and amino acid uptake (.07 g of peptide per gram of cells per hour), and peptides and amino acids can pass out of the rumen if the rate of proteolysis is faster than the rate of peptide utilization. The protein-sparing effect of ionophores is accommodated by decreasing the rate of peptide uptake by 34%. Validation with published data of microbial flow from the rumen gave a regression with a slope of .94 and an r2 of .88.
Russell, J.B. , O'Connor, J.D. , Fox, D.G. , Van Soest, P.J. , Sniffen, C.J.
Includes references.
Journal of animal science Nov 1992. v. 70 (11)
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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