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Introduction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid into soil with solvents and resulting implications for bioavailability to microorganisms

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Slow equilibration of introduced chemicals through tortuous pore space limits uniform substrate distribution in soil biodegradation studies. The necessity of introducing poorly soluble xenobiotics via organic solvents, the volume of which is minimized to limit toxicity, likely also affects xenobiotic distribution. Our objective was to investigate relative effects of carrier solvent choice and volume on xenobiotic distribution, apparent solvent toxicity, and soil degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. Incubations using four carrier solvents ranging in properties showed that the fraction of 2,4-D mineralized was a hyperbolic function of solvent volume used (0.02–10 μl g−1), attributed to compensating effects of herbicide bioavailability and solvent toxicity. Substrate concentration influenced mineralization of herbicide introduced with organic carriers, but not water. Fraction of material readily desorbed increased when water was the carrier. Results suggest that solvent toxicity should be balanced with uniformity of substrate distribution when using organic carriers in soils. Substrate bioavailability is a ubiquitous issue in terrestrial microbiology research, thus limitations observed herein broadly apply to microbiology questions about introduced substances in soil. We advocate the development of tools to characterize variable conditions among soil compartments, estimates of substrate bioavailability, and linkage of this information to microbial data.
Teresa A. Johnson , Gerald K. Sims
Journal title changed from 'World J Microbiol Biotechnol'
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2011 5 v. 27 no. 5
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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