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Utilization of the nitrate reductase enzymatic pathway to reduce enteric pathogens in chickens

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Previous reports have shown that some bacteria, including Salmonella, use a dissimilatory nitrate reductase enzyme pathway (NREP) in anaerobic environments. This enzyme reduces nitrate to nitrite and has been shown to cometabolize chlorate to cytotoxic chlorite. The present investigations were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of a competitive exclusion culture (CE) to the experimental chlorate product (ECP). A commercially available CE product was evaluated for its nitrate reductase activity and therefore its chlorate sensitivity. Individual isolates (in triplicate) were cultured in 10 mL of Viande Levure broth containing 5 mM sodium nitrate or 10 mM sodium chlorate. Bacterial growth (optical density at 625 nm) was measured and 1-mL aliquots were removed concurrently for colorimetric determination of nitrate content at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Of the 15 different facultative strains, 11 had slight NREP utilization, 3 had moderate NREP utilization, and the remainder were NREP negative (with slight and moderate NREP utilization: >0.1 to <1.0 mM and >1.0 mM nitrate used within 6 h, respectively). Of the obligate anaerobes evaluated, 3 had slight NREP utilization and the remainder were NREP negative. In vivo studies utilizing both products (CE and ECP) in a horizontal transmission challenge model (seeders + contacts) showed significant reductions in Salmonella from 5.37 to 1.76 log10 cfu/g and 3.94 to 0.07 log10 cfu/g, respectively. The combined effect of the CE culture and an ECP are effective in killing these food-borne pathogens.
McReynolds, J.L. , Byrd, J.A. , Moore, R.W. , Anderson, R.C. , Poole, T.L. , Edrington, T.S. , Kubena, L.F. , Nisbet, D.J.
Includes references
Poultry science 2004 Nov., v. 83, no. 11
Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed
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